TŌKAIDŌ GOJŪSAN TSUGI NO UCHI– “fifty-three stations on the tokaido road”

Of the numerous series of landscape scenes designed by Hiroshige none is better known, or has brought him wider fame, than his celebrated early set of Views on the Tokaido, the road running along the eastern coast between the two capitals Yedo (now Tokyo) and Kyoto, a distance of 323 miles, entitled the “Fifty-three Stations of the Eastern Road”.

Date 1858
Publisher Tsutaya
Format Horizontal ōban

Utagawa Hiroshige embarked on a journey along the Tōkaidō accompanying a convoy of horses, an annual gift from the shogun to the emperor. He left Nihonbashi, a bridge and center of commerce in the capital of Edo, for the city of Kyoto on the 8th month of 1832. The Tōkaidō (literally, “Eastern Sea Road”) was one of five major routes in the Edo period that connected Edo (present-day Tokyo) to Kyoto. This particular route traveled along the eastern shores of Honshū renowned for the rich beauty of its mountain, river, and ocean scenery, and was usually traveled by foot, horse, and palanquin. There were a total of fifty-three government sanctioned post stations along the route, which contained lodging, food, and stables, from which Hiroshige derived his own.

These discoveries throughout his journey fascinated deeply Hiroshige and thus the New Hiroshige as a landscape painter was born. In these works Hiroshige imbued his images of the people living near these watery sites and their everyday lives with a uniquely special lyricism. Furthermore, Hiroshige’s approach towards his work was more poetic and ambient with the use of subtle colors choosing a seasonal theme best suited for each post station giving viewers a simluated experience.

Nihonbashi

At the Nihonbashi Bridge, the “London Bridge of Japan” and starting point of the Tokaido, a daimyo procession crosses early in the morning as it begins its long journey out of Edo and toward the open gates of the district. Ahead of the group are the fishmongers who carry fresh fish from the nearby market into the city.

2

kawasaki

A ferry-boat crosses the river and is awaited by a group of travelers and a packed-horse. To left a man is poling a timber-raft. Beyond clumps of trees is a village with thatched roofs; and Fuji is seen to right with bars of red cloud near its base.

4

Hodogawa

Travellers crossing from the right a wooden bridge over a stream at the end of which are tea-houses and the village stretching to right. Beyond lies the tree-clad hill with distant mountains to the left.

6

Fujisawa

The village by the edge of a stream, and a bridge leading to it, over which people are passing. In background, overlooking the village on a wooded hill, above the mists, stands the temple Yugi-o-ji; in the foreground a torii, and close to it four blind men following each other by the bank of the stream.

8

Ōiso

The approach through rice-fields along a narrow road lined with trees, to a curving street of huts, overlooking the sea, and travellers entering the village under a downpour of rain.

10

Hakone

A group of wild and precipitous cliffs, that in the centre, of many colours lies the highest peak drawn in a peculiar angular manner, The round the base of which, through a gorge, a daimyo’s cortege is wending its way; on the left the Hakone Lake, with Fuji in the distance.

12

Numazu

A group of wild and precipitous cliffs, that in the centre, of many colours lies the highest peak drawn in a peculiar angular manner, The round the base of which, through a gorge, a daimyo’s cortege is wending its way; on the left the Hakone Lake, with Fuji in the distance.

14

Yoshiwara

A horse with three women in a balanced saddle and led by a man pass along the road, raised and edged with pine trees. To left the cone of the distant Fuji; to right, peaks of other mountains

16

Yui

On left steep crags with pine-trees and three travellers; in centre the trunks of two pine trees cross above flat-topped rocks. Below and to right is the Suruga bay with four sailing-boats and beyond the white cone of Fuji flecked with grey on its lower slopes.

18

Ejiri

View over Mio-no-Matsu-bara, at the mouth of the Okitsu River (seen close to in previous plate), to a hilly coast-line beyond; fishing boats anchored in foreground in front of a fishing village, and others sailing in the bay

20

Mariko

Two travellers having refreshment at a wayside tea-house, from which another traveller has just departed, and a woman with a child on her back waiting on them. Beside the tea-house grows a plum tree, just bursting into blossom against the rosy sky; behind rises a grey hill tinted with brown.

22

Fujieda

A group of coolies changing horses and packs outside the inn, on the platform of which, to right, is seated an attendant checking on them.

24

Kanaya

Beyond the wide sandy flats of the river, across which a daimyo’s cortege is being carried, rises a jumble of foot-hills, in a crevice of which nestles a village. In the background a high range of curiously hump-shaped mountains, printed in graded black from colourblocks only; golden sky at top.

26

Kakegawa

Travellers crossing a high trestle-bridge over the Kake River, two of them peering into the water below, and behind a small boy watching a kite up in the air, while beyond another, with broken string, flutters to earth. Peasants transplanting rice in the flooded fields, and in the distance Mount Akiba rising above the mists.

28

Mitsuke

On the near arm of the river, right, two ferry-boats are beached, one with two boatmen. On the far side of the sand bank, more ferry-boats with travellers. Beyond, tree-clad hills appear in the mist.

30

Maisaka

Imaki Point, a group of rugged peaks juts out from right to centre. Beyond it to right the white cone of Fuji. Around the rocky shore are small fishing-boats. To right in foreground the sails of three boats and stakes to left.

32

Shirasuka

The sea with sails is seen in the dip between two hill-sides each with pine trees, just below which appear the heads of badges of a daimyo procession. Below, the beach, with fishing nets drying and boats off the shore

34

Yoshida

Toyokawa Castle to right, with scaffolding and painters at work. To left the trestle-bridge crosses the river to the village; beyond, mountain peaks.

36

Akasaka

The courtyard of a rest-house, in the centre of which a sago-palm is growing; on the left, guests being served with refreshments, and on the right, geisha dressing up for their performance.

38

Okazaki

A daimyo’s procession crossing a trestle-bridge over the river from left to right. Beyond is the village, castle, a group of low hills and a mountain with rounded summit.

40

Narumi

One side of the village street with two shops for selling stencilled fabrics for which the neighbouring village of Arimatsu was famous. Over the nearest is the cipher of Hiroshige. Along the road to right pass a woman in a litter with two women attendants, another woman riding a led horse, and a porter.

42

Kuwana

Two sailing-boats, with sails partly lowered, entering the inlet on the farther side of which is Kuwana Castle. Other sailing-boats out at sea to right.

44

Ishiyakushi

The village temple among trees at the foot of a hill. beyond which rise the rounded summits of another range. Porters pass along a causeway towards the left; two more are working in rice-fields to right of the causeway.

46

Kameyama

The whole scene is deep in snow, with steep hillsides to right, snow-laden trees and a procession climbing up to the castle. Below is the village and a fine rose-coloured glow to left.

48

Sakanoshita

To right a tea-house with guests on the edge of a precipice. Two visitors gazing across the chasm at the wild group of peaks, with waterfalls, opposite. Beyond, the double summit of another range.

50

Minakuchi

In the foreground, to left, two women are preparing sliced gourd (kampyo), a third has a baby on her back. In the centre is a tree and beyond is the village amid bamboos, with palisades on which sliced gourd is hanging. High mountains in background.

52

Kusatsu

A large tea-house with travellers eating ricecakes which are being made under the veranda. In the foreground two litters, one open and the other closed, both carried by coolies.

Kyoto

Travelers finally arrive at the Great Sanjō Bridge over the Kamo River in Kyoto, the imperial capital and the terminal of the Tōkaidō. In the background are houses, temples, and villas at the foot of Higashiyama; Mount Hiei, an important Buddhist center, is silhouetted in distance.

1

Shinagawa

Dawn. A procession starting up the village street to the right from the shores of the bay; six figures present – with two bowmen and two porters. Four ships with sails set, one under the bank and a group at anchor to the left.

3

Kanagawa

The village street rises steeply to left with a string of travellers, two of whom are accosted by women who try to drag them into the teahouses. In the bay, a sailing boat at anchor, towards which goes a skiff with two men; also five small boats and in distance to right five boats sailing. Cloud in sky to left.

5

Totsuka

At the veranda of a tea-house to the left a man dismounts from his horse, a maid-servant to left; a woman and coolie to right. In centre a milestone, For Kamakura turn to left. On right a porter arrives across a wooden bridge. Beyond the stream, houses, pine trees and a palisade.

7

Hiratsuka

The Nawate Highway, with a few single pine trees, zigzags across rice-fields. Beyond a round-topped hill to left, craggy mountain to right and Fuji seen, white, between them. On the road a coolie running to right passes two travellers.

9

Odawara

A daimyo’s cortege being carried across the River Sakawa. Beyond rice-fields and mountains rising high to right; at their feet the castle. Two coolies only on the near bank, and the outlines of the distant hills sharp and abrupt.

11

Mishima

Heavy morning mist. In centre, a group of travellers, one mounted and one in a litter, are passing the entrance to a Shinto temple. Other travellers, houses and trees dimly seen in the mist to the left and in distance.

13

Hara

The view of Mount Fuji is virtually unobstructed from the place called Hara (literally “field”). The mountain’s majestic height is emphasized as its peak extends beyond the frame of the picture. Two women, accompanied by a male attendant in traveling dress, seem awestruck by the breathtaking view.

15

Kambara

The village occupies the middle distance; to left a steep tree-clad slope; beyond, trees and mountains, in the foreground the road slopes upwards to right with three peasants. All in heavy snow, which is still seen to fall against the dark background.

17

OKitsu

View near the mouth of the Okitsu River, looking out to sea, and two wrestlers being carried up-stream, one on a packhorse and the other in a kago. The somewhat grotesque coolies and fat wrestlers are a blot on an otherwise pleasing view of land and sea.

19

Fuchū

In right foreground women are carried across the ford; to left coolies lead a pack-horse and others carry loads. Beyond the farther bank, great hills stretch away to the distance right and left.

21

Okabe

A mountain torrent rushing between steep banks and walled in on one side by a stone embankment, along which people are passing bearing bundles of wood. High peaks in the background.

23

Shimada

A procession of travellers crossing the first arm of the ford of the river Oi from right to left. The chief retainers of the daimyo are waiting their turn on the shore of the near bank.

25

Nisaka

A very steep yellow road in a mountainous district, and at the foot of it people examining a large rock, marking the spot where a murder was committed. In later issues the road is green.

27

Fukuroi

Coolies resting by a wayside shelter, while a large kettle, hung from the branch of a tree, is boiling; a woman stirs the fire, while a coolie lights his pipe at it. Close against the tree stands a road-direction post, and on the right is a bird perched upon a wayside noticeboard; behind are rice fields, at the edge of which stands the village.

29

Hamamatsu

A party of coolies warming themselves by a bonfire beside a large tree, a traveller, with pipe in hand, looking on, and a peasant woman carrying a child on her back, approaching from the right. Bare, flat rice-fields, across which stand the castle and village in the background.

31

Arai

A ferry-boat, with peasants crossing from left. In centre, a daimyo’s boat, screened, with badges and crest. Beyond the water the village amid pines and mountain peaks in the distance to right.

33

Futakawa

To left a tea-house with sign, at which a traveller has just arrived; three musicians in centre pass towards it. Beyond is a great slope, with young pine trees, and beyond are flat fields, dotted with pines.

35

Goyu

The village street in the twilight. In centre, elderly maid-servants are struggling for possession of travellers. To left in an open tea-house, a traveller prepares to wash his feet. On its walls are the names of Jirobei, engraver; Heibei, printer; and Ichiryusai, designer. On a large circle, that of Takenouchi, fan, the publisher.

37

Fujikawa

Villagers bowing down as the head of a daimyo procession reaches the entrance to the village. On either side of the road, walled bank with trees and bamboos. Below in centre, rice-fields. Sky with rich yellow clouds.

39

Chiriu

A number of horses tethered near a tree in the fields, where a fair is held in the summer. An uninteresting print, the drawing of the horses being crude and the green of the fields harsh.

41

Miya

Two teams of men, each with one horse, hauling festival cars (not in the design) from right. To right part of a torii; to left a building outside which are two fires, and people watching.

43

Yokkaichi

A high wind blowing from right across the marsh. To left a peasant, cloaked, on a trestle-bridge; another races along the causeway to catch his hat which has blown off. In centre a willow tree bending to the wind; left, roofs of cottages and masts of boats. The bow of a punt in the foreground.

45

Shōno

In driving wind and rain, three coolies with a litter mount the steep hill-side; two more hurry downwards to right. On the umbrella of one of these are the characters Takenouchi han and Gojusan tsugi. Beyond are the roofs of houses, bamboos bending to the wind, and the tops of two lines of trees dimly seen through the rain.

47

Seki

The courtyard of an inn at which a daimyo is resting, screened with hangings bearing his crest. Lower, servants preparing to start, before dawn; to left a group of them adjusting hats, etc.; farther back, others receiving a samurai. On the lanterns held by one of these is Hiroshige’s cipher.

49

Tsuchiyama

The head of a daimyo’s procession crossing a torrent by a bridge towards the village, hidden in a grove of trees, under a heavy downpour of rain.

51

Ishibe

To left a large inn, trees, decorations, etc., with groups of travellers starting along the road to right. Beyond, distant mountains rise above bars of mist.

53

Otsu

Three bullock carts, one with bales of rice, the others with charcoal, come down the street from right to the tea-house on left, in front of which is a fountain with coolie filling buckets. In centre, pine trees rise above the bamboos, etc. A green hill faintly outlined in distance.

Nihonbashi

At the Nihonbashi Bridge, the “London Bridge of Japan” and starting point of the Tokaido, a daimyo procession crosses early in the morning as it begins its long journey out of Edo and toward the open gates of the district. Ahead of the group are the fishmongers who carry fresh fish from the nearby market into the city.

1

Shinagawa

Dawn. A procession starting up the village street to the right from the shores of the bay; six figures present – with two bowmen and two porters. Four ships with sails set, one under the bank and a group at anchor to the left.

2

kawasaki

A ferry-boat crosses the river and is awaited by a group of travelers and a packed-horse. To left a man is poling a timber-raft. Beyond clumps of trees is a village with thatched roofs; and Fuji is seen to right with bars of red cloud near its base.

3

Kanagawa

The village street rises steeply to left with a string of travellers, two of whom are accosted by women who try to drag them into the teahouses. In the bay, a sailing boat at anchor, towards which goes a skiff with two men; also five small boats and in distance to right five boats sailing. Cloud in sky to left.

4

Hodogawa

Travellers crossing from the right a wooden bridge over a stream at the end of which are tea-houses and the village stretching to right. Beyond lies the tree-clad hill with distant mountains to the left.

5

Totsuka

At the veranda of a tea-house to the left a man dismounts from his horse, a maid-servant to left; a woman and coolie to right. In centre a milestone, For Kamakura turn to left. On right a porter arrives across a wooden bridge. Beyond the stream, houses, pine trees and a palisade.

6

Fujisawa

The village by the edge of a stream, and a bridge leading to it, over which people are passing. In background, overlooking the village on a wooded hill, above the mists, stands the temple Yugi-o-ji; in the foreground a torii, and close to it four blind men following each other by the bank of the stream.

7

Hiratsuka

The Nawate Highway, with a few single pine trees, zigzags across rice-fields. Beyond a round-topped hill to left, craggy mountain to right and Fuji seen, white, between them. On the road a coolie running to right passes two travellers.

8

Ōiso

The approach through rice-fields along a narrow road lined with trees, to a curving street of huts, overlooking the sea, and travellers entering the village under a downpour of rain.

9

Odawara

A daimyo’s cortege being carried across the River Sakawa. Beyond rice-fields and mountains rising high to right; at their feet the castle. Two coolies only on the near bank, and the outlines of the distant hills sharp and abrupt.

10

Hakone

A group of wild and precipitous cliffs, that in the centre, of many colours lies the highest peak drawn in a peculiar angular manner, The round the base of which, through a gorge, a daimyo’s cortege is wending its way; on the left the Hakone Lake, with Fuji in the distance.

11

Mishima

Heavy morning mist. In centre, a group of travellers, one mounted and one in a litter, are passing the entrance to a Shinto temple. Other travellers, houses and trees dimly seen in the mist to the left and in distance.

12

Numazu

A group of wild and precipitous cliffs, that in the centre, of many colours lies the highest peak drawn in a peculiar angular manner, The round the base of which, through a gorge, a daimyo’s cortege is wending its way; on the left the Hakone Lake, with Fuji in the distance.

13

Hara

The view of Mount Fuji is virtually unobstructed from the place called Hara (literally “field”). The mountain’s majestic height is emphasized as its peak extends beyond the frame of the picture. Two women, accompanied by a male attendant in traveling dress, seem awestruck by the breathtaking view.

14

Yoshiwara

A horse with three women in a balanced saddle and led by a man pass along the road, raised and edged with pine trees. To left the cone of the distant Fuji; to right, peaks of other mountains

15

Kambara

The village occupies the middle distance; to left a steep tree-clad slope; beyond, trees and mountains, in the foreground the road slopes upwards to right with three peasants. All in heavy snow, which is still seen to fall against the dark background.

16

Yui

On left steep crags with pine-trees and three travellers; in centre the trunks of two pine trees cross above flat-topped rocks. Below and to right is the Suruga bay with four sailing-boats and beyond the white cone of Fuji flecked with grey on its lower slopes.

17

OKitsu

View near the mouth of the Okitsu River, looking out to sea, and two wrestlers being carried up-stream, one on a packhorse and the other in a kago. The somewhat grotesque coolies and fat wrestlers are a blot on an otherwise pleasing view of land and sea.

18

Ejiri

View over Mio-no-Matsu-bara, at the mouth of the Okitsu River (seen close to in previous plate), to a hilly coast-line beyond; fishing boats anchored in foreground in front of a fishing village, and others sailing in the bay

19

Fuchū

In right foreground women are carried across the ford; to left coolies lead a pack-horse and others carry loads. Beyond the farther bank, great hills stretch away to the distance right and left.

20

Mariko

Two travellers having refreshment at a wayside tea-house, from which another traveller has just departed, and a woman with a child on her back waiting on them. Beside the tea-house grows a plum tree, just bursting into blossom against the rosy sky; behind rises a grey hill tinted with brown.

21

Okabe

A mountain torrent rushing between steep banks and walled in on one side by a stone embankment, along which people are passing bearing bundles of wood. High peaks in the background.

22

Fujieda

A group of coolies changing horses and packs outside the inn, on the platform of which, to right, is seated an attendant checking on them.

23

Shimada

A procession of travellers crossing the first arm of the ford of the river Oi from right to left. The chief retainers of the daimyo are waiting their turn on the shore of the near bank.

24

Kanaya

Beyond the wide sandy flats of the river, across which a daimyo’s cortege is being carried, rises a jumble of foot-hills, in a crevice of which nestles a village. In the background a high range of curiously hump-shaped mountains, printed in graded black from colourblocks only; golden sky at top.

25

Nisaka

A very steep yellow road in a mountainous district, and at the foot of it people examining a large rock, marking the spot where a murder was committed. In later issues the road is green.

26

Kakegawa

Travellers crossing a high trestle-bridge over the Kake River, two of them peering into the water below, and behind a small boy watching a kite up in the air, while beyond another, with broken string, flutters to earth. Peasants transplanting rice in the flooded fields, and in the distance Mount Akiba rising above the mists.

27

Fukuroi

Coolies resting by a wayside shelter, while a large kettle, hung from the branch of a tree, is boiling; a woman stirs the fire, while a coolie lights his pipe at it. Close against the tree stands a road-direction post, and on the right is a bird perched upon a wayside noticeboard; behind are rice fields, at the edge of which stands the village.

28

Mitsuke

On the near arm of the river, right, two ferry-boats are beached, one with two boatmen. On the far side of the sand bank, more ferry-boats with travellers. Beyond, tree-clad hills appear in the mist.

29

Hamamatsu

A party of coolies warming themselves by a bonfire beside a large tree, a traveller, with pipe in hand, looking on, and a peasant woman carrying a child on her back, approaching from the right. Bare, flat rice-fields, across which stand the castle and village in the background.

30

Maisaka

Imaki Point, a group of rugged peaks juts out from right to centre. Beyond it to right the white cone of Fuji. Around the rocky shore are small fishing-boats. To right in foreground the sails of three boats and stakes to left.

31

Arai

A ferry-boat, with peasants crossing from left. In centre, a daimyo’s boat, screened, with badges and crest. Beyond the water the village amid pines and mountain peaks in the distance to right.

32

Shirasuka

The sea with sails is seen in the dip between two hill-sides each with pine trees, just below which appear the heads of badges of a daimyo procession. Below, the beach, with fishing nets drying and boats off the shore

33

Futakawa

To left a tea-house with sign, at which a traveller has just arrived; three musicians in centre pass towards it. Beyond is a great slope, with young pine trees, and beyond are flat fields, dotted with pines.

34

Yoshida

Toyokawa Castle to right, with scaffolding and painters at work. To left the trestle-bridge crosses the river to the village; beyond, mountain peaks.

35

Goyu

The village street in the twilight. In centre, elderly maid-servants are struggling for possession of travellers. To left in an open tea-house, a traveller prepares to wash his feet. On its walls are the names of Jirobei, engraver; Heibei, printer; and Ichiryusai, designer. On a large circle, that of Takenouchi, fan, the publisher.

36

Akasaka

The courtyard of a rest-house, in the centre of which a sago-palm is growing; on the left, guests being served with refreshments, and on the right, geisha dressing up for their performance.

37

Fujikawa

Villagers bowing down as the head of a daimyo procession reaches the entrance to the village. On either side of the road, walled bank with trees and bamboos. Below in centre, rice-fields. Sky with rich yellow clouds.

38

Okazaki

A daimyo’s procession crossing a trestle-bridge over the river from left to right. Beyond is the village, castle, a group of low hills and a mountain with rounded summit.

39

Chiriu

A number of horses tethered near a tree in the fields, where a fair is held in the summer. An uninteresting print, the drawing of the horses being crude and the green of the fields harsh.

40

Narumi

One side of the village street with two shops for selling stencilled fabrics for which the neighbouring village of Arimatsu was famous. Over the nearest is the cipher of Hiroshige. Along the road to right pass a woman in a litter with two women attendants, another woman riding a led horse, and a porter.

41

Miya

Two teams of men, each with one horse, hauling festival cars (not in the design) from right. To right part of a torii; to left a building outside which are two fires, and people watching.

42

Kuwana

Two sailing-boats, with sails partly lowered, entering the inlet on the farther side of which is Kuwana Castle. Other sailing-boats out at sea to right.

43

Yokkaichi

A high wind blowing from right across the marsh. To left a peasant, cloaked, on a trestle-bridge; another races along the causeway to catch his hat which has blown off. In centre a willow tree bending to the wind; left, roofs of cottages and masts of boats. The bow of a punt in the foreground.

44

Ishiyakushi

The village temple among trees at the foot of a hill. beyond which rise the rounded summits of another range. Porters pass along a causeway towards the left; two more are working in rice-fields to right of the causeway.

45

Shōno

In driving wind and rain, three coolies with a litter mount the steep hill-side; two more hurry downwards to right. On the umbrella of one of these are the characters Takenouchi han and Gojusan tsugi. Beyond are the roofs of houses, bamboos bending to the wind, and the tops of two lines of trees dimly seen through the rain.

46

Kameyama

The whole scene is deep in snow, with steep hillsides to right, snow-laden trees and a procession climbing up to the castle. Below is the village and a fine rose-coloured glow to left.

47

Seki

The courtyard of an inn at which a daimyo is resting, screened with hangings bearing his crest. Lower, servants preparing to start, before dawn; to left a group of them adjusting hats, etc.; farther back, others receiving a samurai. On the lanterns held by one of these is Hiroshige’s cipher.

48

Sakanoshita

To right a tea-house with guests on the edge of a precipice. Two visitors gazing across the chasm at the wild group of peaks, with waterfalls, opposite. Beyond, the double summit of another range.

49

Tsuchiyama

The head of a daimyo’s procession crossing a torrent by a bridge towards the village, hidden in a grove of trees, under a heavy downpour of rain.

50

Minakuchi

In the foreground, to left, two women are preparing sliced gourd (kampyo), a third has a baby on her back. In the centre is a tree and beyond is the village amid bamboos, with palisades on which sliced gourd is hanging. High mountains in background.

51

Ishibe

To left a large inn, trees, decorations, etc., with groups of travellers starting along the road to right. Beyond, distant mountains rise above bars of mist.

52

Kusatsu

A large tea-house with travellers eating ricecakes which are being made under the veranda. In the foreground two litters, one open and the other closed, both carried by coolies.

53

Otsu

Three bullock carts, one with bales of rice, the others with charcoal, come down the street from right to the tea-house on left, in front of which is a fountain with coolie filling buckets. In centre, pine trees rise above the bamboos, etc. A green hill faintly outlined in distance.

Kyoto

Travelers finally arrive at the Great Sanjō Bridge over the Kamo River in Kyoto, the imperial capital and the terminal of the Tōkaidō. In the background are houses, temples, and villas at the foot of Higashiyama; Mount Hiei, an important Buddhist center, is silhouetted in distance.